Bowlby, John

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Bowlby, John

Post  counselor on Mon Oct 15, 2012 10:37 am

Bowlby, John

British psychologist (London, 1907 - 1990). He studied medicine and psychology at Cambridge, then specialized in psychiatry, child psychiatry and psychoanalysis. From 1946 he worked at the Tavistock Clinic and the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in London. In 1950 he held a research on the psychological conditions of orphans or children deprived of their family, entrusted dall'Organizazione World Health Organization. In addition to many years of clinical experience in the field of child psychopathology, B. had already published between the 40s and the 50s many studies on the influence that the environment has on the psychological development of the individual, especially in the first years of life. Studies continued in the following years after the publication of the monograph submitted to him by the WHO, released in 1951, which made his name known in the scientific world, even beyond the narrow circle of specialists. Main works: maternal care and mental health of the child (1951), Attachment and Loss (3 vols., 1969-80). The main conclusions of B. can be summarized as follows: a) all the studies and all the experts who had consulted both in Europe and the United States agree that maternal care lavished in early childhood are of utmost importance for the development of mental health, b) for maternal care should be understood not only the satisfaction of basic physiological needs, but also the ability to provide adequate answers to the intellectual and emotional needs of the child; c) the prolonged deprivation of maternal care in childhood can have serious and sometimes permanent training the character of the adult; d) the development of the ego and super-ego is inextricably linked to the first human relationships of the child and can only happen if these relationships bring satisfaction and safety. The psyche undifferentiated early years of life needs, because it evolves and structuring properly, a mother figure well identified e) the lack of maternal care (ie a family) is negative for the whole of ' childhood, from birth to adolescence, but it is all the more serious as it appears as a complete absence. In the controversy, but also in close dialogue with the psychoanalytic model, B. drew from his own research on children deprived of family theory of psychological development centered on the concept of attachment, with which it is understood the inherent tendency to establish links with individuals of the same species, but also with one thing, an environment or a way of life. B. argued that many forms of behavior hitherto referred to as object relations or dependency needs are, in fact, forms of behavior passed down over the generations that influence survival in species. B. theorizes attachment as: a) a biological predisposition toward the small who takes care of him, assuring the survival b) a primary motivation based on the search for contact and comfort that is active mainly in situations of danger, and c) a system control, which aims to maintain a balance between proximity and exploration, d)-oriented behavior to survival and reproductive success.
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