Bruner, Jerome Saymou

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Bruner, Jerome Saymou

Post  counselor on Mon Oct 15, 2012 10:34 am

Bruner, Jerome Saymour

American psychologist (New York, 1915). Professor of psychology at Harvard University and professor emeritus at New York University, after the first research on the consequences of war in social psychology, has been continuously engaged in processes of perception and the influence of social factors in cognitive development. In 1959 he was the animator of the Woods Hole Conference, designed to improve and streamline the curriculum and teaching methods. From this experience develops its new e-research, which stands in sharp contrast to behaviorism pragmatist. Was decisive in this sense his polemic at a distance with Dewey, merged into a key-text: After Dewey. The learning process in the two cultures (1964). Other works: The cognitive development (1966), Knowing. Essays for the Left Hand (1968), The meaning of education (1971), The Mind of Many Dimensions (1984), Towards a theory of education (1991), The search for meaning. To a cultural psychology (1992), The culture of education (1996). Contrary to the approach of Piaget (from which, however, the work is largely influenced by B.), cognitive development can not be achieved through a fixed sequence of stages, the intelligence is in fact rather be defined as the ability to implement a series of strategies and procedures to solve problems, to analyze the information and encode it. B. From this point of view gives great importance to the situation and the context in which we deal with the problems (ie, social factors), but also to motivational factors (individual factors). Cognitive development is the shift from poor to richer systems and effective processing information. This transition takes place through three forms of representation: the action, the image and language, which correspond to three different types of cognitive representation: executive, iconic, symbolic. Representation in the executive, typical of the early months of life, the child uses manipulation, perception, attention, and social interaction, it has a motor knowledge of reality (which sometimes persists into adulthood), that learns and understands acting. The action is intentional, but for B. the intention precedes action, unlike Piaget. Motor development and manipulative is a constructive process, controlled by the purposes of the subject and environmental needs, the iconic encoding reality through mental representations and internal images, which represent a mental reorganization of reality. The phase of the iconic, which makes use of images, it remains up to six or seven years, but it does not mean that the child can use the following representation, which is symbolic, since the two years, the symbolic representation is an expression of reality through conventional signs and symbols, that is they are socially. The word is the meaning of the object and expresses a concept. When the child learns to talk, so it features a coding system more efficient and flexible than the previous ones. Unlike the sequence of stadial Piaget, the three forms of representation of B. not a fixed sequence in which one disappears and the other appears, but all co-exist, preserving their autonomy. All mental processes have a social foundation: the structure of human knowledge is influenced by the culture through its symbols and its conventions. At each stage of development activity is driven both by individual goals, and the need for social relationships. Social influence determines and disseminates the concepts and categories shared by a culture and approved by the members, easily learned and represented in the mind of every individual.

The culture is reflected as well in the mental life: intelligence is the internalization of the tools of a culture.

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